1. Percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100.

2. To calculate the percentage of a number, divide the part by the whole and multiply by 100.

3. For example, if you want to find out what percentage 25 is of 100, you would divide 25 by 100 to get 0.25, and then multiply by 100 to get 25%.

4. Similarly, if you want to find out what percentage a certain increase or decrease represents, divide the difference by the original value and multiply by 100.

5. For instance, if the price of a product increases from $50 to $60, the percentage increase would be (60-50)/50*100 = 20%.

6. To find the original value from a percentage increase or decrease, use the formula:original value = final value / (1 +/- percentage as a decimal).

7. For example, if the price of a product has increased by 20%, the original price would be $60 / (1 + 0.20) = $50.

8. To calculate the percentage difference between two numbers, find the absolute difference between the two values, divide by the average of the two numbers, and multiply by 100.

9. For instance, if the weight of a person has changed from 70 kg to 80 kg, the percentage difference would be |(80-70)/(70+80)/2|*100 = 14.3%.

10. It is important to pay attention to units when calculating percentages, and convert them if necessary to ensure consistency.

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